The Educational Imagination

5 Orientations to the Curriculum The Educational Imagination, 1985 2nd Ed.Elliot Eisner1. Development of Cognitive Processes • Help children learn how to learn • Use and strengthen the intellectual facilities through process2. Academic Rationalism • Foster growth in subject matters most worthy of study, especially basic fields ofstudy e.g. science • A “liberal education” for everyone, therefore, a common educational experience foreveryone. “What’s best for the best is best for the rest”3. Personal Relevance • Children are individuals and require a personal buy-in • Teachers must establish a rapport with a student • People are stimulus seeking, therefore, provide a rich environment for growth • Child centered; the teacher as gardener or travel agent4. Social Adaptation and Social ReconstructionSocial Adaptation • Maintain the status quo and meet the social needs • Career and vocation education so that one may fit inSocial Reconstruction • Focus on real problems with a view to do something about them • Build anew, change and cope with the difficulties5. Curriculum as Technology • Once ends have been formulated, establish the means to get there • A planning model, very sequential • Chart progress towards specific objectives • Images of this curriculum include a staircase with few landings and no hallwaysfeeding into it or an efficient machineThese orientations are infrequently encountered in a pure state although commonly one dominates. Context is critical to any given situation.Activity from Class MeetingCURRICULA PUBLIC PRIVATE HOME (FAMILY) OTHER1. Mathematics 2. English 3. Science 4. Social Science 5. Physical Training 6. Sports 7. Health 8. Foreign Language 9. Music 10. Dance 11. Graphic Arts 12. Art History 13. Drama 14. Technology 15. Business 16. Law 17. Economics 18. Practical Arts 19. Religion 20. Journalism 21. Creative Writing 22. Driver Training 23. Cooking 24. Work Experience 25. Vernacular Arts 26. Travel Abroad 27. Interpersonal Skills 28. Intrapersonal SkillsA = Actively Engaged In (personally)E = Explicit Curricula (advertized) I = Implicit Curricula (not advertized) N = Null Curricula (non-existent)

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