Modern Western Civilization

I. Please do ONE of the following questions. Your answer will be graded by the content, accuracy and clarity. (40 points)1. What events lead to World war I and why was The Treaty of Versailles a failure? How did the world change in terms of new nations, territories, colonies?2. How did Hitler attain power? Include in your answer the election that brought him to power, von Papen’s compromise, the Reichstag fire and subsequent events after that. What were Hitler’s racial policies and how were they implemented as part of his future plans?II. Short Answers. Please do THREE of the following questions. Your answers will be graded by the same criteria as the essay. (85 points):1. Why did some countries, such as Lithuania, welcome the Nazis during World War II as liberators? What were the einsatzgruppen and how did they regard their duties? Why did this method prove unreliable and what was the “final solution”?2. In the aftermath of World War II, the same mistakes were not made with peace plans as occurred in WWI. How was the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, SEATO and NATO a success, or were they all equally successful?3. How and why did Denmark delay Germany’s mandates concerning Danish Jews? What do you think are the historical lessons here concerning citizenship and basic human rights that the Danish people observed?4. In Franz Fanon’s book, THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH, what does he say about an individual’s right to reclairm their dignity after decolonization? Do you agree or disagree? Why?5. How did Mussolini define Fascism?6. What were the immediate factors that started the Russian Revolution and why was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk made? Consider the incompetence of Nicholas II, unpopularity of World War I, the distrust of the Duma to Nicholas and his family and the initiatives of Lenin and the Bolsheviks.7. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk developed a different path for turkey following World War I.What were his policies?8. You are a French soldier who has just returned to your town of Dijon and you have heard about the Treaty of Versailles. You think that Germany has suffered but not as much as your cousins in Belgium or your friends who were killed. Why would you think this treaty was a good one? Be specific.9. How did Hitler attain power and how did World War II begin?

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