Assignment: Language In Informatics
Assignment: Language In Informatics
Assignment: Language In Informatics
CO3 Define standardized terminology that reflects nursings unique contribution to patient outcomes. (PO 3)
CO8 Discuss the value of best evidence as a driving force to institute change in delivery of nursing care. (PO 8)
What is the impact of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) payment denial on the healthcare system?
What are the implications for our nursing practice related to use of standardized terminology for documentation?
How do evidence-based practice guidelines impact patient outcomes and necessitate improved practice care?
Dix was also known for her work in the Civil War, having been appointed superintendent of the female nurses of the army by the secretary of war in 1861. Her tireless efforts led to the recruitment of more than 2,000 women to serve in the army during the Civil War. Officials had consulted with Nightingale concerning military hospitals and were determined not to make the same mistakes. Dix enjoyed far more sweeping powers than Nightingale in that she had the authority to organize hospitals,
to appoint nurses, and to manage supplies for the wounded (Brockett & Vaughan, 1867). Among her most well-known nurses during the Civil War were the poet Walt Whitman and the author Louisa May Alcott (Donahue, 1985).
Clara Barton The idea for the International Red Cross was the brainchild of a Swiss banker, J. Henri Dunant, who proposed the formation of a neutral international relief society that could be activated in time of war. The International Red Cross was ratified by the Geneva Convention on August 22, 1864. Clara Barton, through her work in the Civil War, had come to believe that such an organization was desperately needed in the United States. However, it was not until 1882 that Barton was able to convince Congress to ratify the Treaty of Geneva, thus becoming the founder of the American Red Cross (Kalisch & Kalisch, 1986). Barton also played a leadership role in the Spanish- American War in Cuba, where she led a group of nurses to provide care for both U.S. and Cuban soldiers and Cuban civilians. At the age of 76, Barton went to President McKinley and offered the help of the Red Cross in Cuba. The president agreed to allow Barton to go with Red Cross nurses but only to care for the Cuban citizens. Once in Cuba, the U.S. military saw what Barton and her nurses were able to accomplish with the Cuban military, and American soldiers pressured military officials to allow Bartons help. Along with battling yellow fever, Barton was able to provide care to both Cuban and U.S. military personnel and eventually expanded that care to Cuban citizens in Santiago. One of Bartons most famous clients was young Colonel Teddy Roosevelt, who led his Rough Riders and who later became the president of the United States. Barton became an instant heroine both in Cuba and in the United States for her bravery and tenaciousness and for organizing services for the military and civilians torn apart by war. On August 13, 1898, the Spanish-American War came to an end. The grateful people of Santiago, Cuba, built a statue to honor Clara Barton in the town square, where it stands to this day. The work of Barton and her Red Cross nurses spread through the newspapers of the United States and in the schools of nursing. A congressional committee investigating the work of Bartons Red Cross staff applauded these nurses and recommended that the U.S. Army Medical Department create a permanent reserve corps of trained nurses. These reserve nurses became the Army Nurse Corps in 1901. Clara Barton will always be remembered both as the founder of the American Red Cross and as the driving force behind the creation of the Army Nurse Corps (Frantz, 1998).
Birth of the Midwife in the United States Women have always assisted other women in the birth of babies. These lay midwives were considered by communities to possess special skills and somewhat of a calling. With the advent of professional nursing in England, registered nurses became associated with safer and more predictable childbirth practices. In England and in other countries where Nightingale nurses were prevalent, most registered nurses were also trained as midwives with a 6-month specialized training period. In the United States, the training of registered nurses in the practice of midwifery was prevented primarily by physicians. U.S. physicians saw midwives as a threat and intrusion into medical practice. Such resistance indirectly led to the proliferation of granny wives who were ignorant of modern practices, were untrained, and were associated with high maternal morbidity (Donahue, 1985).
The first organized midwifery service in the United States was the Frontier Nursing Service founded in 1925 by Mary Breckinridge. Breckinridge graduated from the St. Lukes Hospital Training School in New York in 1910 and received her midwifery certificate from the British Hospital for Mothers and Babies in London in 1925. She had extensive experience in the delivery of babies and midwifery systems in New Zealand and Australia. In rural Appalachia, babies had been delivered for decades by granny midwives, who relied mainly on tradition, myths, and superstition as the bases of their practice. For example, they might use ashes for medication and place a sharp axe, blade up, under the bed of a laboring woman to cut the pain. The people of Appalachia were isolated because of the terrain of the hollows and mountains, and roads were limited to most families. They had one of the highest birth rates in the United States. Breckinridge believed that if a midwifery service could work under these conditions, it could work anywhere (Donahue, 1985).
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