Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper

Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper Follow the instructions that are at major assignment 3 rubric – please provide 2 extra sources and articles which are related to the topic i have provided three articles to include at the major assignments colin_nohr_____major_assignment_3_____literature_review__revised_august_8___1_.pdf eram_1.pdf eram_2.pdf eram_3.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Major Assignment 3 — Literature Review Assignment Purpose: What to Keep in Mind By this point in the course, you should have the following: • • ???? A revised annotated bibliography and research proposal (from Major Assignment 2) with feedback A finalized research question to focus your themes around Now that you’ve gotten the paperwork out of the way with the research proposal, you can start your main task as a writing studies investigator! This is where the magic starts to happen.

Your literature review should give you—and hopefully your audience—a much clearer understanding of the context that surrounds your research topic and question. The purpose of a literature review is to clearly illustrate (1) the themes that are related to your research topic (2) how various researchers have discussed these themes within different contexts. A literature review is an essential component to any academic research article. It provides context that I, as your reader, otherwise might not have. This is because I am a writing studies instructor and understand theories within my discipline, but maybe I don’t know anything about how social media works, for example, or how other scholars have discussed it conceptually. You will help explain these parts to me and how they fit in. ???? ? The literature review should clearly lay out the themes and conversations that surround your research question. Each component adds an additional lens to your research, focusing it in some way so that your observations are pinpointed to specific features.

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If you and your reader both understand how you are interpreting data before seeing it, then it will be much easier to communicate findings that add valuable knowledge. This section is especially important for this class because it will help you better understand how writing studies applies writing-related theories to observe various phenomena in the real world. ENC 1102 — Nohr — Fall 2019 Page 1 Major Assignment 3 — Literature Review Assignment Requirements for Maximum Points First, remember that you can always resubmit your assignments after revising them for a higher grade. An “A” submission does the following: • Clearly outlines several relevant themes that explain the research question, demonstrating a clear understanding of the present study’s position in the academic conversation. • Frames various research articles as components in an ongoing discussion, discussing potential agreements, disagreements, and other pertinent information for each major theme. • Demonstrates an understanding of the contextual nature of the research article in the class, directed at other writing studies scholars. • Outlines a research gap and explains how to fill it.

• Is 2-4 pages in length, or adequately explains all necessary themes. Assignment Overview and Steps 1) Ensure that your annotated bibliography is up to date (i.e., you haven’t made any changes to your research focus since then). 2) Use the CARS model and outline the 3 moves you will make in your paper before you write. This step of course is not necessary if you feel confident enough to begin without outlining, but it might help some. 3) Use a topic matrix to find (dis)agreements or gaps within each topic and across researchers’ findings for each article. 4) Write about the existing research gap and why it is important to solve. 5) Explain briefly (1 paragraph) how your research will fill that gap. ENC 1102 — Nohr — Fall 2019 Page 2 Major Assignment 3 — Literature Review Assignment Tips and Tricks: How to Save Time & Frustration • Use other research articles that you’ve read as a guide for writing your own literature review. This not only helps you address your readers’ (writing studies scholars) expectations for the genre, but it also shows you how it can be done! Every article should have a literature review, so you can’t miss it when reading secondary research articles. ENC 1102 UCF Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper • While reading articles, continue to be open to the ways in which other researchers in your topic area conduct their studies.

What methods do they use? How do they discuss their results? • Input from other researchers is vital from this point on, be it from the instructor, from peers, or from writing center tutors. They’re great, check them out! • Your general topic, research question, and even specific themes should be concrete (unchanging) by this point. Otherwise, you will easily fall behind and stress yourself out. It’s okay if your research doesn’t turn out perfect or doesn’t give stunning results. That’s part of the process, and I only want you to show that you know how it can be done. • Don’t forget to REVIEW and REVISE your writing. Please do not be afraid to submit it to me early and get feedback on it before submitting it officially. I’d love to assist you in the revision process.

• As always, please visit me during office hours or talk with me after class if you’re feeling stuck during this process. ENC 1102 — Nohr — Fall 2019 Page 3 Welcome to America? International Student Perceptions of Discrimination Author(s): Jenny J. Lee and Charles Rice Source: Higher Education, Vol. 53, No. 3 (Mar., 2007), pp. 381-409 Published by: Springer Stable URL: Accessed: 26-02-2020 16:10 UTC REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at Springer is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Higher Education This content downloaded from on Wed, 26 Feb 2020 16:10:22 UTC All use subject to Higher Education (2007) 53: 381-409 ? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. DOI 10.1007/s 10734-005-4508-3 Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination JENNY J. LEE & CHARLES RICE Center for the Study of Higher Education, University of Arizona, 305 Education Building, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA (E-mails:, Abstract. This research explores the experiences of international students at a research university in the U.S. Southwest. Based on interviews of a sample of 24 students from 15 countries, we consider a range of difficulties they encounter which runs from perceptions of unfairness and in hospitality to cultural intolerance and confrontation.

Utilizing the conceptual framework of neo-racism to explain many of their experiences, we organize our analysis and discussion around their words and the contexts in which the difficulties they encounter emerge. We find that not all of the issues international students face can be problematized as matters of adjustment, as much research does, but that some of the more serious challenges are due to inadequacies within the host society. Without question, as international students study in American institu? tions they provide many benefits for the U.S. They increase the diversity of student populations, add new perspectives to classroom conversa? tions, and, related, increase our awareness and appreciation for other countries and cultures (Bevis, 2002; Harrison, 2002). They bring knowledge and skills in many fields, especially within sciences, engi? neering, and technology (Barber and Morgan, 1987; Altbach, 1989, 1998; Slaughter and Rhoades, 2004).

Those that stay add to the intel? lectual capital of the U.S., and those that return home most often do so with good will and affinity for their second home. ENC 1102 UCF Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper Moreover, in the area of foreign policy the U.S. and other developed nations’ institutions educate many of those who take leadership positions in other nations, which ultimately may benefit relations between countries (Altbach, 1998; NAFSA, 2003). International student flows into the U.S. have received increasing attention following college enrollment shifts in the post-September 11 climate. In 2004 the Institute of International Education reported that colleges observed the first absolute decline in international student enrollments since 1971 (HE, 2004). The 2.4% drop followed the smallest increase the previous year (0.6% in 2002/03), preceded by 5 years of This content downloaded from on Wed, 26 Feb 2020 16:10:22 UTC All use subject to 382 JENNY J. LEE AND CHARLES RICE steady growth (HE, 2004). From the Middle East, enrollment dropped significantly by 9% and from Saudi Arabia alone by 16% (HE, 2004). Meanwhile, political and academic leaders demand increased support for international education in the U.S. (Peterson 1999; Harrison, 2002; NAFSA, 2003).

The international graduate student population seems to be especially impacted by recent declines, according to a 2004 survey of 530 institu? tions (NAFSA 2004a, 2004b). Nearly half of the 250 institutions that provided data on international graduate students indicated reductions in applications. Among 130 doctoral and research institutions, nearly 60% reported declines. Of the 25 research institutions that enroll the most international students, all 19 survey respondents indicated a decrease in graduate applications, with 15 reporting declines of more than 10%. Thirteen of the institutions in this group that responded to a question concerning Chinese students reported greater drops in Chinese graduate applications compared to all other international appli? cants ? 30% or more, and four institutions with 50% or more. The survey indicated that many of the highest skilled students now seek further educational opportunities outside the U.S., a result of what the surveyors partly attribute to the perception of an unwelcoming climate for international students in the U.S. The reasons for the decline in international applications and enrollment remain largely unexplored empirically, however, scholars have proposed various explanations: greater national security and obstacles related to obtaining visas (Owens 2002; NAFSA, 2003; HE, 2003b; Arnone, 2003); increased competition from other countries (Altbach, 1989, 1998; HE, 2003b); and discrimination and hostility towards foreign students (McMurtie, 2001; Lane, 2002; Brender, 2004; MacWilliams, 2004; Lee, 2005).

As an example of the latter point, hundreds of Middle Eastern students withdrew from U.S. institutions and returned home rather than live in fear of reprisal after September 11, 2001 (McMurtie, 2001), a situation which partly explains the sub? stantial decline in international applications from the Middle East and South Asia (Council of Graduate Schools, 2004). To explore the issue of declining enrollment empirically we under? took a study of international student experiences. We were struck by the gravity of the problems that emerged from their stories, and also the different experiences between White students and those of color, dif? ferences that called for a consideration of discrimination. We therefore utilized the conceptual framework of neo-racism in analyzing their This content downloaded from on Wed, 26 Feb 2020 16:10:22 UTC All use subject to INTERNATIONAL STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF DISCRIMINATION 383 reports and perceptions of acceptance after enrollment. Neo-racism emphasizes cultural differences as a basis of discrimination that appeals to popular notions of cultural preservation. Besides shedding light on dissatisfaction and discriminatory experiences as a reason for declining enrollments (Lee, 2005), this study identifies student perceptions of discrimination and how cultural discrimination may create a hostile climate in the institutions and communities international students are hosted by.

Our aim is to stimulate the discussion of international stu? dents’ concerns as an important step in bettering their experiences and ensuring their continued enrollment. Literature review We begin by describing the changing context of international education and then review articles that look into the experiences of international students. Although international education is hardly a new phenome? non, the driving forces behind it have changed considerably from that of diplomacy and intercultural exchange to globalism, often with under? lying economic motivations. One such motivation has come from the shift towards understanding students as ‘customers’ and ‘consumers,’ a change which has contributed to increased recruitment of international students for revenue (Habu, 2000; Levin, 2002; Rhee and Sagaria, 2004; Slaughter and Rhoades, 2004).ENC 1102 UCF Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper Unfortunately, this is not always accompanied with a strong consideration of their experiences after enrollment, a factor which we believe underlies much international student dissatisfaction. Changing context of international education Cross-border education has existed since the earliest formations of higher education, beginning with the University of Paris opening its doors to scholars outside France to train its students in the 13th cen? tury.

Some contend that the academy has always been global in scope (Altbach, 1998) and point to the use of common languages of instruc? tion, such as Latin, and the persistent cross-border flows of students and scholars ongoing since the European Middle Ages. Whereas much 20th century international education was focused on diplomacy, state development, and building cultural and political ties, the massification of higher education brought with it a new market This content downloaded from on Wed, 26 Feb 2020 16:10:22 UTC All use subject to 384 JENNY J. LEE AND CHARLES RICE perspective of students as a revenue source (Habu, 2000; Levin, 2002; Rhee and Sagaria, 2004; Slaughter and Rhoades, 2004). Increasing the demand for study in particular institutions added prestige and value to marketable educational products.

Indeed, higher education leaders and policy makers recognize the economic advantages international students contribute; most international students pay full tuition benefiting their institutions and the local and national economies as well. International students add approximately $12 billion to the U.S. economy (HE, 2003a) and education is now recognized as the fifth largest export of services in the U.S. (HE, 2003a). Well aware of this growing market, Britain and Australia have emerged as strong competitors for the financial benefits that international students bring. Tapping into the global market has become a motivating reason for the recruitment of international students. International student recruitment agencies are now prevalent in the international marketplace and a leading influence on whether and where a student will pursue international education (Pimpa, 2003). This “irony of globalization” (Habu, 2000, p. 62) is that while studying abroad provides great opportunities for personal and professional growth, it also encourages a narrow view of students as economic revenue, which in turn can place less emphasis (and accountability) on their cross-cultural and academic experiences.

The added downside is that while some view international students as rev? enue sources and as cheap skilled labor (in the sciences and engineering departments especially), they are also perceived as threats to U.S. eco? nomic self-sufficiency (Rhoades and Smart, 1996). National policies revealed a deep-seated fear of the country’s dependency on international students, which became known as “the foreign student problem” (Rhoades and Smart, 1996, p. 142). Many institutions have emphasized the value of campus interna? tionalization. However, internationalization has been defined and uti? lized in many different ways; some have used it interchangeably with globalization, transnational education, or international education, and some have tied it to specific forms of globalization or intercultural exchange. The latter emphasis can be understood in the context of higher education as “the process of integrating an international, inter? cultural, or global dimension into the purpose, functions, or delivery of postsecondary education” (Knight, 2003, p. 2) in order “to understand, appreciate and articulate the reality of interdependence among nations (environmental, economic, cultural, and social) and therefore prepare [those involved] to function in an international and inter-cultural This content downloaded from on Wed, 26 Feb 2020 16:10:22 UTC All use subject to INTERNATIONAL STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF DISCRIMINATION 385 context” (Knight and de Wit, 1995, p. 13). This definition emphasizes the motivation of intercultural exchange for improved understanding and relations between peoples. Unlike globalization, which emphasizes students as economic units, internationalization emphasizes students as central players in intercultural exchange and diplomacy between nations.

Understanding internationalization in this way requires a study of actual student experiences as opposed to mere enrollment counts or flow trends. International student experiences Recent literature on the social experiences of international students in U.S. institutions is limited so we include in this review other national studies which shed light on the similarity of issues these students face across cultures. Students coming to the U.S. may encounter difficulties beginning as early as obtaining permission to pursue education. Immigration regu? lations and interviews have become burdensome enough to discourage students from applying to U.S. institutions (Altbach, 2004). ENC 1102 UCF Arab International Student Adjustments To US Universities Paper Those that persist have encountered mounting fees and delays since 9/11 which diminish their chances of filling the university seats they were offered, and visas denied entirely block some from enrollment. Words of such experiences move quickly among populations of prospective interna? tional students who weigh the time and resources spent in seeking en? trance to the U.S. against the less onerous regulations of other countries, such as Canada or Australia. Aside from entrance obstacles, social and community factors strongly affect international students’ experiences after arriving and their decision to persist.

Studies have noted differences in social acceptance by country of origin and culture of international students. For example, even before 9/11 women who wore veils or saris had difficulties integrating with campus life and suffered unpleasant expe? riences (Bevis, 2002; Cole and Ahmadi, 2003). In their quantitative study of 190 students from Latin American and Asia studying in the U.S., Wilton and Constantine (2003) examined acculturative factors related to adjustment. They found that because of language and cultural factors, Latin American and Asian students have greater levels of stress than other international students. Heggins and Jackson (2003) found that informal social networks are very important to Asian students in the U.S. who are uncomfortable using university support services when This content downloaded from on Wed, 26 Feb 2020 16:10:22 UTC All use subject to 386 JENNY J. LEE AND CHARLES RICE problems arise. They observe that studies in addition to their own show that minority international students report being treated like uninvited gu … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10


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